AdCapital at risk. Trade Your Favorite Instruments CFDs From You Mobile. Start trading CFDs on Stocks, Forex, Commodities and much more with Plus WebAdaptively blur pixels, with decreasing effect near edges. A Gaussian operator of the given radius and standard deviation (sigma) is blogger.com sigma is not given it defaults to The sigma value is the important argument, and determines the actual amount of blurring that will take place.. The radius is only used to determine the size of the array which holds the WebA binary option is a financial exotic option in which the payoff is either some fixed monetary amount or nothing at all. The two main types of binary options are the cash-or-nothing binary option and the asset-or-nothing binary option. The former pays some fixed amount of cash if the option expires in-the-money while the latter pays the value of the WebTrading binary options offers a Yes/No proposition. Although there are variations on the High/Low option, this type of investment will always have a black and white, Yes/No, binary outcome. Where trades can be closed, redeemed or sold mid-trade, payouts have absolute figures of 0 and and prices move between as the market dictates – until WebPresidential politics and political news from blogger.com News about political parties, political campaigns, world and international politics, politics news headlines plus in-depth features and ... read more
那有没有好的办法解决这个问题呢？方法当然有，首先我们需要知道哪里可以下载到不同版本的文件。这里推荐两个网站，国内首选淘宝的镜像仓库：数据更新会比谷歌官方稍慢；可供下载的版本有时不全； 原创 如何安装MockingBird-AI拟声: 5秒内克隆您的声音并生成任意语音内容 作者：虚坏叔叔早餐店不会开到晚上，想吃的人早就来了！😄。 原创 Quasar — 免费开源的Windows远程管理工具 适用于Windows的免费开源远程控制管理工具Quasar是一种用C＃编码的快速轻量级远程管理工具。可用于管理工作到员工监控等。Quasar提供高稳定性和易用的用户界面，是您理想的远程控制管理解决方案。 原创 AutoJs4.
原创 将你的 Python 脚本转换为命令行程序 哈喽，大家好，今天给大家介绍一下，如何通过Python自动整理文件。 原创 如何通过Python自动整理文件？ 哈喽，大家好，今天给大家介绍一下，如何通过Python自动整理文件。 原创 如何用python自动化微信小程序 本文介绍了整个微信小程序的自动化过程。我已经将全部源码上传到后台上，关注文章底部公众号后回复「kja」即可获得。你的肯定是我最大的鼓励和支持。 2.
原创 如何在实体手机上，保证手机能够正常运行uiautomator2，并安装ATX-agent 如何在实体手机上，保证手机能够正常运行uiautomator2，并安装ATX-agent。以小米手机为例子，首先打开 设置-更多设置-开启开发者模式。如果初始化完成后，发现手机并没有安装ATXagent应用。说明设备未认证（unauthorized），此时，当你看到这个，就说明手机安装成功了环境。需要记得，将 USB安装 勾选上。 原创 address localhost is already in use（端口被占用）Windows系统问题解决 在学习编程的过程中，我们或许会遇到端口被占用的情况，因而导致程序启动不了。这种情况只需要找到占用端口的进程，然后在中关闭改进程即可解决问题。后面补加的图。 原创 mitmproxy的介绍以及配置过程中的问题 提示：以下是本篇文章正文内容，下面案例可供参考。 FinalShell 中文安装包 FinalShell 一款可以替代XShell 的ssh 客户端软件，不仅是 ssh 客户端软件，还是功能强大的开发及运维的工具。可以满足我们的工作需求 主要特性:.
net版本问题: 检查是否安装. reres chrome插件v1. app自动化课程的简介和介绍 app自动化课程的简介和介绍. A speculator taking a position on the monetary policy of the Bank of England or ECB might be best served by one broker, while the person looking to bet on growth in the Apple, Facebook or Vodafone share price might want another.
Most top brokers offer demo trading accounts. These allow new clients to try the services on offer. They can see if the range of markets and investment scales suit them and only proceed to a funded account when they are happy that the right trading account has been found.
Those brokers that do provide practise or virtual balances, have confidence in their trading platform. They are prepared to let new traders see it, and try it out, risk free. The majority of these demonstration accounts will work on both the website, and also the mobile app. Both systems can be checked before making a deposit. This type of account allows the user to not just trial the broker, but also use the demo account to try a new trading strategy, or even back test a strategy based on past financial data.
All without risking any of your own cash or wealth. Our broker reviews are written after genuine trading on each platform, brand, or white label. They include all aspects of each provider — good or bad. The credibility of the reviews is important to us. So they are checked and updated regularly and feedback we receive forms part of the overall rating. In order for binary trading to move into the financial mainstream, comparison services need to be open, honest and transparent — and that is what we try and deliver in our broker reviews.
Binary brokers are regulated via a number of bodies. CySec regulate the majority of brokers based in Cyprus and Israel. European regulation however, allows providers to serve British clients. In the UK however, a stronger layer of consumer protection is available if a broker is regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority FCA.
Some firms also register with the FCA — but this is not the same as regulation. This is an important distinction. In the US the CFTC have only licensed two brokers to operate there — Nadex and CBOE. In Australia, ASIC Australian Securities and Investments Commission oversee brokerages.
Some firms are also regulated by the Malta Gaming Authority, or the Isle of Man GSC. In Europe, an organisation called ESMA European Securities and Markets Authority also suggest legislation or regulatory guidelines that the majority of domestic regulators adhere to.
They recently suggested that binary options should be prohibited to retail investors — though this policy is rather ill-thought out and out dated. Such changes will punish honest regulated brokers, leaving the dishonest scams to continue operating. Regulated brokers offer greater levels of consumer confidence than unregulated firms.
They are obliged to retain trader funds in separate accounts, and not in company accounts. They must provide a dispute process for customers, and treat clients equitably and fairly. In addition, regulated firms can only market in a responsible way, and in regions where trading is permitted.
Responsible brokers welcome regulation as a way to increase levels of consumer trust. Copy trading is a growing sector of investing. It allows users to copy the trades of others. Those copying decide how much to invest, and whether to copy some or all of the trades that a particular trader or tipster opens.
The traders being copied also benefit, as the broker will often reward these clients through commission, or increased income revenue and profits based on the trade volume they generate. When copying however, time and effort spent finding the right traders to follow will pay dividends. Social trading is similar, but is more geared towards social media style info sharing.
They were initially only available to large scale investors — institutions, wealthy individuals and funds. In however, the US Securities and Exchange Commission allowed these fixed return options to be traded over an exchange.
This allowed the Chicago Board Options Exchange CBOE and the American Stock Exchange to offer binary trading on certain underlying assets. Initially, the range of assets was limited, as were the choice of options. Nadex also began offering exchange traded options matching buyers and sellers in the US as the market developed. As popularity and commerce grew however, the traded assets moved beyond Forex and equities and the option types expanded as well. The barriers to entry for potential market makers or brokers are much lower in the binary sector.
This, coupled with the boom in internet trading over a similar period, has left regulation lagging behind the industry. The growth of binaries however, is unlikely to slow. The simplicity, coupled with the clarity of risk, allows almost anyone to take a view on a particular asset but manage their risk much more easily than versus contracts for difference or stocks purchases.
In order to learn binary options, traders have a wealth of learning opportunities and courses. Each trader is different, results will alter from different methods of learning.
Some may prefer a pdf file or spreadsheet on the subject, while others will learn most from diving in and getting some hands on experience. Here are a selection on learning methods:. Brokers are keen to give traders the confidence to start trading — and many offer some or all of the above for potential new clients to learn about binary options, generally for free. Some tools are only made available once a trader has registered — this is purely so the broker has some contact details for things like trading seminars or web based demonstrations.
A great way to learn binary options is via an online demonstration or seminar. Some brokers offer weekly seminars, some in a range of languages. Other firms will offer one on one training, but generally require a deposit beforehand. Some traders benefit from downloading an eBook tutorial, and learning about binary options at their own pace.
One note of caution, is that each broker will focus on their own trading platform and quotes for some of the explanations and screen shots. Brokers want new traders to use their services. The good news is that while the look and feel of some trading platforms will differ, the underlying functions are the same — so the knowledge is transferable easily.
We list the best here. Video tutorials are the most popular learning method. Some brokers do make more effort than others though, and viewers may also be presented with the same video at different brokers — only the voiceover has changed! There are however, some very good suites of videos available, and they are viewable without registering.
We have embedded a video from IQ Option which introduces their trading platform and online binary trading. They offer a full range of videos on their site. Firms constantly update their training portfolio, so there is no clear winner in this category. Brokers want to encourage trading, so they make it very easy for traders to learn the basics. More advanced information is harder to come by from brokers — but hopefully the strategy and technical analysis pages on this website assist. Below are some of the questions and topics we are asked about most often regarding binary trading online.
Hopefully these short paragraphs can provide an answer — but if not, there are a number of links to more in-depth articles that explain each subject area. Put and Call options are simply the terms given to buying or selling an option. If a trader believes an asset will go up in value, they open a call. If they expect the value to fall, they place a put trade. Some binary trading brokers change their trading buttons every couple of seconds, from Call and Put, to Down and Up to avoid confusion.
Others dispense with the terms put and call entirely, using arrows instead. Icons are always clear so mistakes are not made. The input image can be any size, but if not square and even-dimensioned, it is padded automagically to the larger of the width or height of the input image and to an even number of pixels. The resulting output magnitude and phase images is square at this size. The kind of padding relies on the -virtual-pixel setting. Both output components will have dynamic ranges that fit within [0, QuantumRange ], so that HDRI need not be enabled.
The first few releases had non-HDRI scaled but HDRI not scaled. The magnitude image is not scaled and thus generally will contain very small values. As such, the image normally will appear totally black. In order to view any detail, the magnitude image typically is enhanced with a log function into what is usually called the spectrum. A log function is used to enhance the darker values more in comparison to the lighter values.
This can be done, for example, as follows:. where either -contrast-stretch 0 or -auto-level is used to scale the image to full dynamic range, first. The argument to the -evaluate log typically is specified between and 10,, depending upon the amount of detail that one wants to bring out in the spectrum.
Larger values produce more visible detail. Too much detail, however, may hide the important features. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -fft. However, as the real and imaginary components can contain negative values, this requires that IM be configured with HDRI enabled.
In this case, you must use either MIFF, TIF, PFM or MPC formats for the real and imaginary component results, since they are formats that preserve both negative and fractional values without clipping them or truncating the fractional part.
For more about HDRI go the ImageMagick Usage pages, Fred's Fourier Processing With ImageMagick page or this Wikipedia entry. By default the FFT is normalized and the IFT is not.
This option accepts a color name, a hex color, or a numerical RGB, RGBA, HSL, HSLA, CMYK, or CMYKA specification. See Color Names for a description of how to properly specify the color argument. Enclose the color specification in quotation marks to prevent the " " or the parentheses from being interpreted by your shell. Use this type of filter when resizing or distorting an image.
Use this option to affect the resizing operation of an image during operations such as -resize and -distort. For example you can use a simple resize filter such as:. The Bessel and Sinc filter is also provided as well as a faster SincFast equivalent form. However these filters are generally useless on their own as they are infinite filters that are being clipped to the filters support size.
Their direct use is not recommended except via expert settings see below. Instead these special filter functions are typically windowed by a windowing function that the -filter setting defines. That is using these functions will define a 'Windowed' filter, appropriate to the operator involved. Windowed filters include:. Also one special self-windowing filter is also provided Lagrange , which will automagically re-adjust its function depending on the current 'support' or 'lobes' expert settings see below.
If you do not select a filter with this option, the filter defaults to Mitchell for a colormapped image, an image with a matte channel, or if the image is enlarged. Otherwise the filter default to Lanczos. You can modify how the filter behaves as it scales your image through the use of these expert settings see also -define and -set To extract the data for a raw windowing function, combine it with a ' Box ' filter. For example the ' Welch parabolic windowing function. Note that the use of expert options is provided for image processing experts who have studied and understand how resize filters work.
Without this knowledge, and an understanding of the definition of the actual filters involved, using expert settings are more likely to be detrimental to your image resizing. This is a simple alias for the -layers method "flatten".
Flood fill starts from the given 'seed point' which is not gravity affected. Any color that matches within -fuzz color distance of the given color argument, connected to that 'seed point' will be replaced with the current -fill color. Note that if the pixel at the 'seed point' does not itself match the given color according to -fuzz , then no action will be taken. This operator works more like the -opaque option, than a more general flood fill that reads the matching color directly at the 'seed point'.
For this form of flood fill, look at -draw and its 'color floodfill' drawing method. Set the font to use when annotating images with text, or creating labels. To print a complete list of fonts, use the -list font option for versions prior to 6.
In addition to the fonts specified by the above pre-defined list, you can also specify a font from a specific source. For example Arial. ttf is a TrueType font file, ps:helvetica is PostScript font, and x:fixed is X11 font. For other settings that affect fonts, see the options -family , -stretch , -style , and -weight. To specify an explicit font filename or collection, specify the font path preceded with a , e. You can specify the font face index for font collections, e.
When used with the mogrify utility, this option converts any image to the image format you specify. For a list of image format types supported by ImageMagick, use -list format. By default the file is written to its original name. However, if the filename extension matches a supported format, the extension is replaced with the image format type specified with -format. For example, if you specify tiff as the format type and the input image filename is image.
gif , the output image filename becomes image. See Format and Print Image Properties for an explanation on how to specify the argument to this option. The color of the border is specified with the -mattecolor command line option. The size portion of the geometry argument indicates the amount of extra width and height that is added to the dimensions of the image. If no offsets are given in the geometry argument, then the border added is a solid color.
Offsets x and y , if present, specify that the width and height of the border is partitioned to form an outer bevel of thickness x pixels and an inner bevel of thickness y pixels.
Negative offsets make no sense as frame arguments. The -frame option is affected by the current -compose setting and assumes that this is using the default ' Over ' composition method.
It generates an image of the appropriate size with the current -bordercolor setting, and then draws the frame of four distinct colors close to the current -mattecolor. The original image is then overlaid onto center of this image. This operator performs calculations based on the given arguments to modify each of the color values for each previously set -channel in the image. See -evaluate for details concerning how the results of the calculations are handled.
This is can be considered a multi-argument version of the -evaluate operator. Added in ImageMagick 6. Here, parameters is a comma-separated list of numerical values. The number of values varies depending on which function is selected. Choose the function from:. To print a complete list of -function operators, use -list function. Descriptions follow. The Polynomial function takes an arbitrary number of parameters, these being the coefficients of a polynomial, in decreasing order of degree.
That is, entering. The Polynomial function can be used in place of Set the constant polynomial and Add , Divide , Multiply , and Subtract some linear polynomials of the -evaluate operator. The -level operator also affects channels linearly. Some correspondences follow. The Polynomial function gives great versatility, since polynomials can be used to fit any continuous curve to any degree of accuracy desired. The Sinusoid function can be used to vary the channel values sinusoidally by setting frequency, phase shift, amplitude, and a bias.
These values are given as one to four parameters, as follows,. where phase is in degrees. The domain [0,1] of the function corresponds to 0 through freq × degrees. The result is that if a pixel's normalized channel value is originally u , its resulting normalized value is given by. For example, the following generates a curve that starts and ends at 0.
The default values of amp and bias are both. The default for phase is 0. The Sinusoid function generalizes Sin and Cos of the -evaluate operator by allowing varying amplitude, phase and bias. The correspondence is as follows.
The ArcSin function generates the inverse curve of a Sinusoid, and can be used to generate cylindrical distortion and displacement maps. The curve can be adjusted relative to both the input values and output range of values. with all values given in terms of normalized color values 0.
Defaulting to values covering the full range from 0. The ArcTan function generates a curve that smooth crosses from limit values at infinities, though a center using the given slope value. All these values can be adjusted via the arguments. A number of algorithms search for a target color. By default the color must be exact. Use this option to match colors that are close to the target color in RGB space. For example, if you want to automagically trim the edges of an image with -trim but the image was scanned and the target background color may differ by a small amount.
This option can account for these differences. If the first character of expression is , the expression is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string. See FX, The Special Effects Image Operator for a detailed discussion of this option. The same color image displayed on two different workstations may look different due to differences in the display monitor. Use gamma correction to adjust for this color difference.
Reasonable values extend from 0. Gamma less than 1. Large adjustments to image gamma may result in the loss of some image information if the pixel quantum size is only eight bits quantum range 0 to This option is useful if the image is of a known gamma but not set as an image attribute e.
PNG images. Write the "file gamma" which is the reciprocal of the display gamma; e. The radius is only used to determine the size of the array which will hold the calculated Gaussian distribution. The larger the Radius the radius the slower the operation is. This differs from the faster -blur operator in that a full 2-dimensional convolution is used to generate the weighted average of the neighboring pixels. Sets the current gravity suggestion for various other settings and options.
Choices include: NorthWest , North , NorthEast , West , Center , East , SouthWest , South , SouthEast. Use -list gravity to get a complete list of -gravity settings available in your ImageMagick installation. The direction you choose specifies where to position text or subimages. For example, a gravity of Center forces the text to be centered within the image.
By default, the image gravity is undefined. See -draw for more details about graphic primitives. Only the text primitive of -draw is affected by the -gravity option. The -gravity option is also used in concert with the -geometry setting and other settings or options that take geometry as an argument, such as the -crop option.
If a -gravity setting occurs before another option or setting having a geometry argument that specifies an offset, the offset is usually applied to the point within the image suggested by the -gravity argument. Thus, in the following command, for example, suppose the file image. png has dimensions x The argument to -gravity is Center , which suggests the midpoint of the image, at the point , In addition, the -gravity affects the region itself, which is centered at the pixel coordinate 60, When used as an option to composite , -gravity gives the direction that the image gravitates within the composite.
When used as an option to montage , -gravity gives the direction that an image gravitates within a tile. The default gravity is Center for this purpose.
This will use one of the -intensity methods to convert the given image into a grayscale image. Note that a 'colorspace' intensity method will produce the same result regardless of the current colorpsace of the image.
But a 'mathematical' intensity method depends on the current colorspace the image is currently using. While this operation uses an -intensity method, it does not use or set the -intensity setting, so will not affect other operations that may use that setting.
A Hald color lookup table is a 3-dimensional color cube mapped to 2 dimensions. Create it with the HALD: prefix e. You can apply any color transformation to the Hald image and then use this option to apply the transform to the image. This option provides a convenient method for you to use Gimp or Photoshop to make color corrections to the Hald CLUT image and subsequently apply them to multiple images using an ImageMagick script.
Note that the representation is only of the normal RGB color space and that the whole color value triplet is used for the interpolated lookup of the represented Hald color cube image. See also -clut which provides color value replacement of the individual color channels, usually involving a simpler grayscale image.
g: grayscale to color replacement, or modification by a histogram mapping. Use the Hough line detector with any binary edge extracted image to locate and draw any straight lines that it finds. The process accumulates counts for every white pixel in the binary edge image for every possible orientation for angles from 0 to in 1 deg increments and distance from the center of the image to the corners in 1 px increments.
It stores the counts in an accumulator matrix of angle vs distance. Next it searches the accumulator for peaks in counts and converts the locations of the peaks to slope and intercept in the normal x,y input image space. The lines are drawn from the given endpoints. The counts are a measure of the length of the lines.
The WxH arguments specify the filter size for locating the peaks in the Hough accumulator. The threshold excludes lines whose counts are less than the threshold value. Use -background to specify the color of the background onto which the lines will be drawn. The default is black. Use -fill to specify the color of the lines.
Use -stroke and -strokewidth to specify the thickness of the lines. The default is black and no strokewidth. A text file listing the endpoints and counts may be created by using the suffix,. mvg, for the output image.
Offsets, if present in the geometry specification, are handled in the same manner as the -geometry option, using X11 style to handle negative offsets. This information is printed: image scene number; image name; image size; the image class DirectClass or PseudoClass ; the total number of unique colors; and the number of seconds to read and transform the image.
Refer to MIFF for a description of the image class. If -colors is also specified, the total unique colors in the image and color reduction error values are printed.
Refer to color reduction algorithm for a description of these values. If -verbose precedes this option, copious amounts of image properties are displayed including image statistics, profiles, image histogram, and others. It transforms a pair of magnitude and phase images from the frequency domain to a single image in the normal or spatial domain.
For example, depending upon the image format used to store the result of the -fft , one would use either. The FFTW delegate library is required to use -ift. By default the IFT is not normalized and the FFT is. reference illuminant. This option takes last image in the current image sequence and inserts it at the given index.
If a negative index is used, the insert position is calculated before the last image is removed from the sequence. As such -insert -1 will result in no change to the image sequence. In other words, insert the last image, at the end of the current image sequence.
Consequently this has no effect on the image sequence order. ImageMagick provides a number of methods used in situations where an operator needs to determine a single grayscale value for some purpose, from an image with red, green, and blue pixel components.
Typically the RecLuma formula is used, which is the same formula used when converting images to -colorspace gray. The following formulas are currently provided, and will first convert the pixel values to linear-RGB or non-linear sRGB colorspace before being applied to calculate the final greyscale value. Note that the above R,G,B values is the image's linear-RGB values, while R',G',B' are sRGB non-linear values.
These intensity methods are mathematical in nature and will use the current value in the images respective R,G,B channel regardless of what that is, or what colorspace the image is currently using. These methods are often used for other purposes, such as generating a grayscale difference image between two color images using -compose ' Difference ' composition.
For example The 'MS' Mean Squared setting is good for minimizing color error comparisions. The method 'RMS' Root Mean Squared for example is appropriate for calculating color vector distance, from a color difference image. This is equivalent to the color only component of the -fuzz factor color compare setting.
See also -grayscale which applies one of the above grayscaling formula directly to an image without setting the -intensity setting. The -colorspace gray image conversion also uses the current intensity setting, but will always convert the image to the appropriate sRGB or linear-RGB colorspace before appling the above function. To print a complete list of possible pixel intensity setting methods, use -list intensity. Use this option to affect the color management operation of an image see -profile.
Choose from these intents: Absolute, Perceptual, Relative, Saturation. The default intent is Perceptual for the sRGB colorspace and undefined for the RGB and gray colorspaces. This option is used to specify the type of interlacing scheme for raw image formats such as RGB or YUV.
Partition is like plane except the different planes are saved to individual files e. R, image. G, and image. Use Line or Plane to create an interlaced PNG or GIF or progressive JPEG image. Set the pixel color interpolation method to use when looking up a color based on a floating point or real value.
When looking up the color of a pixel using a non-integer floating point value, you typically fall in between the pixel colors defined by the source image. This setting determines how the color is determined from the colors of the pixels surrounding that point. That is how to determine the color of a point that falls between two, or even four different colored pixels. This most important for distortion operators such as -distort , -implode , -transform and -fx.
See also -virtual-pixel , for control of the lookup for positions outside the boundaries of the image. Resize with interpolation. See the -interpolate setting. Kmeans iterative color reduction e.
Colors is the desired number of colors. Initial colors are found using color quantization. Processing finishes, if either iterations or tolerance are reached. A color list overrides the color quantization. A non-empty list of colors overrides the number of colors. Any unassigned initial colors are assigned random colors from the image. The radius is more important than the sigma. The sigma provides a bit of additional smoothing control. Use this option to assign a specific label to the image, as it is read in or created.
You can use the -set operation to re-assign a the labels of images already read in. Image formats such as TIFF, PNG, MIFF, supports saving the label information with the image. When saving an image to a PostScript file, any label assigned to an image is used as a header string to print above the postscript image.
You can include the image filename, type, width, height, or other image attribute by embedding special format character. See Format and Print Image Properties for details of the percent escape codes. assigns an image label of MIFF:bird. miff x to the " bird. miff " image and whose width is and height is , as it is read in.
You can remove all labels from an image by assigning the empty string. A label is not drawn on the image, but is embedded in the image datastream via Label tag or similar mechanism.
If you want the label to be visible on the image itself, use the -draw option, or during the final processing in the creation of an image montage. If the first character of string is , the image label is read from a file titled by the remaining characters in the string.
Labels in a file are literal, no embedded formatting characters are recognized. Adaptively threshold each pixel based on the value of pixels in a surrounding window. If the current pixel is lighter than this average plus the optional offset , then it is made white, otherwise it is made black.
Small variations in pixel values such as found in scanned documents can be ignored if offset is positive. A negative offset will make it more sensitive to those small variations. This is commonly used to threshold images with an uneven background. It is based on the assumption that average color of the small window is the the local background color, from which to separate the foreground color. Handle multiple images forming a set of image layers or animation frames.
Perform various image operation methods to a ordered sequence of images which may represent either a set of overlaid 'image layers', a GIF disposal animation, or a fully-'coalesced' animation sequence. The operators -coalesce , -deconstruct , -flatten , and -mosaic are only aliases for the above methods and may be deprecated in the future. Also see -page , -repage operators, the -compose setting, and the GIF -dispose and -delay settings.
Given one, two or three values delimited with commas: black-point, white-point, gamma for example: 10,,1. Gamma will do a -gamma adjustment of the values. If it is omitted, the default of 1. This provides you with direct contrast adjustments to the image. The ' gamma ' of the resulting image will then be adjusted. From ImageMagick v6. That is a zero, or QuantumRange value black, and white, resp. in the original image, is adjusted to the given level values, allowing you to de-contrast, or compress the channel values within the image.
The ' gamma ' is adjusted before the level adjustment to de-contrast the image is made. Only the channels defined by the current -channel setting are adjusted defaults to RGB color channels only , allowing you to limit the effect of this operator. Please note that the transparency channel is treated as 'matte' values 0 is opaque and not as 'alpha' values 0 is transparent.
Adjust the level of an image using the provided dash separated colors. This effectively means the colors provided to -level-colors is mapped to become 'black' and 'white' respectively, with all the other colors linearly adjusted or clipped to match that change.
Each channel is adjusted separately using the channel values of the colors specified. This can also be used to convert a plain grayscale image into a one using the gradient of colors specified. By supplying a single color with a comma separator either before or after that color, will just replace the respective 'black' or 'white' point respectively.
Choose from: width , height , area , memory , map , disk , file , thread , throttle , or time. The value for file is in number of files. The other limits are in bytes. Define arguments for the memory, map, area, and disk resource limits with SI prefixes. g MB. By default the limits are files, 3GB of image area, 1. These limits are adjusted relative to the available resources on your computer if this information is available.
When any limit is reached, ImageMagick fails in some fashion but attempts to take compensating actions, if possible. For example, the following limits memory:.
Use -list resource to list the current limits. For example, our system shows these limits:. Requests for pixel storage to keep intermediate images are satisfied by one of three resource categories: in-memory pool, memory-mapped files pool, and disk pool in that order depending on the -limit settings and whether the system honors a resource request.
If the total size of allocated pixel storage in the given pool reaches the corresponding limit, the request is passed to the next pool. Additionally, requests that exceed the area limit automagically are allocated on disk. To illustrate how ImageMagick utilizes resource limits, consider a typical image resource request.
First, ImageMagick tries to allocate the pixels in memory. The request might be denied if the resource request exceeds the memory limit or if the system does not honor the request. If a memory request is not honored, the pixels are allocated to disk and the file is memory-mapped.
However, if the allocation request exceeds the map limit, the resource allocation goes to disk. In all cases, if the resource request exceeds the area limit, the pixels are automagically cached to disk. If the disk has a hard limit, the program fails. In most cases you simply do not need to concern yourself with resource limits. ImageMagick chooses reasonable defaults and most images do not tax your computer resources.
Where limits do come in handy is when you process images that are large or on shared systems where ImageMagick can consume all or most of the available memory. In this case, the ImageMagick workflow slows other processes or, in extreme cases, brings the system to a halt. Under these circumstances, setting limits give some assurances that the ImageMagick workflow will not interfere with other concurrent uses of the computer.
For example, assume you have a web interface that processes images uploaded from the Internet. To assure ImageMagick does not exceed 10MiB of memory you can simply set the area limit to 10MiB:. Now whenever a large image is processed, the pixels are automagically cached to disk instead of memory.
This of course implies that large images typically process very slowly, simply because pixel processing in memory can be an order of magnitude faster than on disk. Because your web site users might inadvertently upload a huge image to process, you should set a disk limit as well:.
In addition to command-line resource limit option, resources can be set with environment variables. Note, you can restrict limits relative to any security policies , but you cannot relax them. Inquisitive users can try adding -debug cache to their commands and then scouring the generated output for references to the pixel cache, in order to determine how the pixel cache was allocated and how resources were consumed. For more about ImageMagick's use of resources, see the section Cache Storage and Resource Requirements on the Architecture page.
This is very similar to -contrast-stretch , and uses a 'histogram bin' to determine the range of color values that needs to be stretched.
However it then stretches those colors using the -level operator. As such while the initial determination may have 'binning' round off effects, the image colors are stretched mathematically, rather than using the histogram bins. This makes the operator more accurate. note however that a -linear-stretch of ' 0 ' does nothing, while a value of ' 1 ' does a near perfect stretch of the color range. Print a list of supported arguments for various options or settings.
Choose from these list types:. These lists vary depending on your version of ImageMagick. Use " -list list " to get a complete listing of all the " -list " arguments available:. This option specifies the format for the log printed when the -debug option is active. Set iterations to zero to repeat the animation an infinite number of times, otherwise the animation repeats itself up to iterations times. When comparing images, de-emphasize pixel differences with this color. Double or triple the size of the image with pixel art scaling.
The default is scale2X. The X server must support the Standard Colormap you choose, otherwise an error occurs. Use list as the type and display searches the list of colormap types in top-to-bottom order until one is located. See xstdcmap 1 for one way of creating Standard Colormaps. You can specify as many of these components as needed in any order e.
The components can repeat as well e. Specify the color to be used with the -frame option. The default matte color is BDBDBD , this shade of gray.
The mean shift algorithm is iterative and thus slower the larger the window size. From those pixels, it finds which of them are within the specified squared color distance from the current mean. It then computes a new x,y centroid from those coordinates and a new mean. This new x,y centroid is used as the center for a new window. This process is iterated until it converges and the final mean is then used to replace the original pixel value.
It repeats this process for the next pixel, etc, until it processes all pixels in the image. Results are better when using other colorspaces rather than RGB. Recommend YIQ, YUV or YCbCr, which seem to give equivalent results. Output to STDERR a measure of the differences between images according to the type given metric. Control the ' AE ', or absolute count of pixels that are different, with the -fuzz factor ignore pixels which only changed by a small amount.
Use ' PAE ' to find the size of the -fuzz factor needed to make all pixels 'similar', while ' MAE ' determines the factor needed for about half the pixels to be similar. The MEPP metric returns three different metrics ' MAE ', ' MAE ' normalized, and ' PAE ' normalized from a single comparison run. The SSIM and DSSIM metrics respect these defines: -define compare:ssim-radius , -define compare:ssim-sigma , -define compare:ssim-k1 , and -define compare:ssim-k2.
Use the -list option with a ' Mode ' argument for a list of -mode arguments available in your ImageMagick installation. Vary the brightness , saturation , and hue of an image. The arguments are given as a percentages of variation. A value of means no change, and any missing values are taken to mean The brightness is a multiplier of the overall brightness of the image, so 0 means pure black, 50 is half as bright, is twice as bright. To invert its meaning -negate the image before and after.
The saturation controls the amount of color in an image. For example, 0 produce a grayscale image, while a large value such as produce a very colorful, 'cartoonish' color. The hue argument causes a "rotation" of the colors within the image by the amount specified. For example, 50 results in a counter-clockwise rotation of 90, mapping red shades to purple, and so on.
A value of either 0 or results in a complete degree rotation of the image.
Amazon DynamoDB is a fully managed NoSQL database service that provides fast and predictable performance with seamless scalability. DynamoDB lets you offload the administrative burdens of operating and scaling a distributed database, so that you don't have to worry about hardware provisioning, setup and configuration, replication, software patching, or cluster scaling. With DynamoDB, you can create database tables that can store and retrieve any amount of data, and serve any level of request traffic.
You can scale up or scale down your tables' throughput capacity without downtime or performance degradation, and use the Amazon Web Services Management Console to monitor resource utilization and performance metrics. DynamoDB automatically spreads the data and traffic for your tables over a sufficient number of servers to handle your throughput and storage requirements, while maintaining consistent and fast performance.
All of your data is stored on solid state disks SSDs and automatically replicated across multiple Availability Zones in an Amazon Web Services Region, providing built-in high availability and data durability. This operation allows you to perform batch reads or writes on data stored in DynamoDB, using PartiQL. Each read statement in a BatchExecuteStatement must specify an equality condition on all key attributes. This enforces that each SELECT statement in a batch returns at most a single item.
The entire batch must consist of either read statements or write statements, you cannot mix both in one batch. A HTTP response does not mean that all statements in the BatchExecuteStatement succeeded. Error details for individual statements can be found under the Error field of the BatchStatementResponse for each statement. See also: AWS API Documentation. Each attribute value is described as a name-value pair. The name is the data type, and the value is the data itself. For more information, see Data Types in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide.
Numbers are sent across the network to DynamoDB as strings, to maximize compatibility across languages and libraries. However, DynamoDB treats them as number type attributes for mathematical operations.
Determines the level of detail about either provisioned or on-demand throughput consumption that is returned in the response:.
The capacity units consumed by the entire operation. The values of the list are ordered according to the ordering of the statements. The capacity units consumed by an operation.
The data returned includes the total provisioned throughput consumed, along with statistics for the table and any indexes involved in the operation. ConsumedCapacity is only returned if the request asked for it. For more information, see Provisioned Throughput in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide.
The BatchGetItem operation returns the attributes of one or more items from one or more tables. You identify requested items by primary key. A single operation can retrieve up to 16 MB of data, which can contain as many as items. BatchGetItem returns a partial result if the response size limit is exceeded, the table's provisioned throughput is exceeded, or an internal processing failure occurs.
If a partial result is returned, the operation returns a value for UnprocessedKeys. You can use this value to retry the operation starting with the next item to get.
If you request more than items, BatchGetItem returns a ValidationException with the message "Too many items requested for the BatchGetItem call. For example, if you ask to retrieve items, but each individual item is KB in size, the system returns 52 items so as not to exceed the 16 MB limit. It also returns an appropriate UnprocessedKeys value so you can get the next page of results. If desired, your application can include its own logic to assemble the pages of results into one dataset.
If none of the items can be processed due to insufficient provisioned throughput on all of the tables in the request, then BatchGetItem returns a ProvisionedThroughputExceededException. If at least one of the items is successfully processed, then BatchGetItem completes successfully, while returning the keys of the unread items in UnprocessedKeys.
If DynamoDB returns any unprocessed items, you should retry the batch operation on those items. However, we strongly recommend that you use an exponential backoff algorithm.
If you retry the batch operation immediately, the underlying read or write requests can still fail due to throttling on the individual tables. If you delay the batch operation using exponential backoff, the individual requests in the batch are much more likely to succeed. For more information, see Batch Operations and Error Handling in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide.
By default, BatchGetItem performs eventually consistent reads on every table in the request. If you want strongly consistent reads instead, you can set ConsistentRead to true for any or all tables. In order to minimize response latency, BatchGetItem retrieves items in parallel. When designing your application, keep in mind that DynamoDB does not return items in any particular order.
To help parse the response by item, include the primary key values for the items in your request in the ProjectionExpression parameter.
If a requested item does not exist, it is not returned in the result. Requests for nonexistent items consume the minimum read capacity units according to the type of read. For more information, see Working with Tables in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide. A map of one or more table names and, for each table, a map that describes one or more items to retrieve from that table. Each table name can be used only once per BatchGetItem request. Use the character in an expression to dereference an attribute name.
For example, consider the following attribute name:. The name of this attribute conflicts with a reserved word, so it cannot be used directly in an expression. For the complete list of reserved words, see Reserved Words in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide. To work around this, you could specify the following for ExpressionAttributeNames :.
Tokens that begin with the : character are expression attribute values , which are placeholders for the actual value at runtime. For more information about expression attribute names, see Accessing Item Attributes in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide. For each primary key, you must provide all of the key attributes. For example, with a simple primary key, you only need to provide the partition key.
For a composite primary key, you must provide both the partition key and the sort key. The primary key attribute values that define the items and the attributes associated with the items. This is a legacy parameter. Use ProjectionExpression instead. For more information, see Legacy Conditional Parameters in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide. The consistency of a read operation. If set to true , then a strongly consistent read is used; otherwise, an eventually consistent read is used.
A string that identifies one or more attributes to retrieve from the table. These attributes can include scalars, sets, or elements of a JSON document. The attributes in the ProjectionExpression must be separated by commas.
If no attribute names are specified, then all attributes will be returned. If any of the requested attributes are not found, they will not appear in the result. For more information, see Accessing Item Attributes in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide. One or more substitution tokens for attribute names in an expression. The following are some use cases for using ExpressionAttributeNames :. For more information on expression attribute names, see Accessing Item Attributes in the Amazon DynamoDB Developer Guide.
Represents the output of a BatchGetItem operation. A map of table name to a list of items. Each object in Responses consists of a table name, along with a map of attribute data consisting of the data type and attribute value. A map of tables and their respective keys that were not processed with the current response. The UnprocessedKeys value is in the same form as RequestItems , so the value can be provided directly to a subsequent BatchGetItem operation.
For more information, see RequestItems in the Request Parameters section. If there are no unprocessed keys remaining, the response contains an empty UnprocessedKeys map. The read capacity units consumed by the entire BatchGetItem operation. This example reads multiple items from the Music table using a batch of three GetItem requests.
Only the AlbumTitle attribute is returned. The BatchWriteItem operation puts or deletes multiple items in one or more tables. A single call to BatchWriteItem can transmit up to 16MB of data over the network, consisting of up to 25 item put or delete operations. While individual items can be up to KB once stored, it's important to note that an item's representation might be greater than KB while being sent in DynamoDB's JSON format for the API call.
For more details on this distinction, see Naming Rules and Data Types. BatchWriteItem cannot update items. If you perform a BatchWriteItem operation on an existing item, that item's values will be overwritten by the operation and it will appear like it was updated.
To update items, we recommend you use the UpdateItem action. The individual PutItem and DeleteItem operations specified in BatchWriteItem are atomic; however BatchWriteItem as a whole is not. If any requested operations fail because the table's provisioned throughput is exceeded or an internal processing failure occurs, the failed operations are returned in the UnprocessedItems response parameter. You can investigate and optionally resend the requests.
Typically, you would call BatchWriteItem in a loop. Each iteration would check for unprocessed items and submit a new BatchWriteItem request with those unprocessed items until all items have been processed.
On October 19, , London police raided 20 binary options firms in London. Processing finishes, if either iterations or tolerance are reached. Each trader is different, results will alter from different methods of learning. See Alpha Compositing for a detailed discussion of alpha compositing. The Cyprus-based company 24Option  was banned from trading in France by AMF earlier in miff x to the " bird.Use the alpha channel of the current image as a mask, binary option low percentage. 爆款少儿青少年scratch编程第10课：暑期安全 可以直接运行。A53课程制作 爆款爆款少儿青少年scratch编程是包括教程制作完整课程，里面包括教学步骤，教学视频，教学素材，教学课件pdf，教学课件word，课程源码。课程内容大致如下所示：资源:. Let's say you make 1, "trades" and win of them. December 8, This option sets the caption meta-data of an image read in after this option has been given.